Sewage Treatment Plant

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Sewage Treatment Plant (STP)

What is a Sewage Treatment Plant (STP)?

A sewage Treatment Plant (STP) is a facility that is a necessary part of the sewage treatment system. It is required for most municipalities, residential and industrial sewage, and it is the only way to get rid of human waste from the wastewater. Most STPs use a secondary treatment called aerobic aeration, and this process uses small aerators to produce oxygen in wastewater. As per government regulation discharging untreated sewage to the drainage system of the natural water system is illegal.

MBBR based STP Plant

What is MBBR (Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor) in Sewage Treatment Plant?

MBBR based STP plants can effectively treat hard-to-treat wastewater. Compared to other STP technologies, MBBRs require less energy and operate with a small footprint. MBBRs are also highly efficient, making them an excellent choice for wastewater treatment systems. The governing authority has published a guide for MBBR-based STP plants. The advantages of MBBR-based STP plants are numerous, and it may be worth it for you to set up MBBR based STP plant for your sewage or wastewater treatment requirements.

MBR based STP Plant

What is MBR (Membrane BioReactor) Sewage Treatment Plant?

MBR is one of the several wastewater treatment technologies available for sewage treatment today. An MBR based STP plant is one of the most effective ways to treat hard-to-treat wastewater. MBR technology uses a batch system to treat sewage water, and the treated sludge is then sent to a biological filter to remove impurities. The sludge can be used in drinking water, irrigation, and other applications. The efficiency of MBRs has made them popular in municipal wastewater treatment systems.

SBR based STP Plant

What is SBR (Sequencing Batch Reactor) Based Sewage Treatment?

SBR is a high-performance solution for wastewater treatment that can successfully handle batch and continuous flow operations. It is a proven technology with minimal costs and maintenance requirements. The SBR process treats the sewage water in a batch process, and the sludge is then discharged after treatment. The sludge is then sent to a biological filter for further treatment. The resulting effluent is cleaner water with fewer suspended solids and is highly sterile.

SAFF Plant based STP Plant

What is SAFF (Submerged Aerobic Fixed Film Reactor) Based STP Plant?

Compared to conventional sludge ponds, a SAFF system has fewer moving parts and lower energy costs. Furthermore, it is customizable and can accommodate any size of the wastewater treatment plant. A SAFF Plant can be customized to meet specific site requirements and handle a wide variety of shock loads and Biomass. The system also features a simple maintenance process and requires little to no energy. There are many advantages of a SAFF system over conventional STP plants.

Our Awesome Services

Hydroflux Engineering Pvt Ltd is a New Delhi and Mumbai based Wastewater treatment company having more than ten years of experiance. We manufacture a wide range of Water and Wastewater treatment systems like ETP Plant, CETP Plant, ZLD Plant.

Low Foot Print

Low footprint and recyclable quality effluent, although they are high energy-intensive systems.

High Speed Processing

Pass strict govt test performance with continuous nitrification & denitrification process.

Inexpensive Maintenance

STPs need frequent monitoring but it would have to be desludged and serviced at least once a year.

Expels Harmful

Treated correctly and then re-used/re-cycled for various uses that do not need potable quality.

Optimum Waste Utilization

STP is the process of removing contaminants from wastewater, primarily from household sewage.

Energy Proficient

Enhancing the Energy Efficiency of Wastewater Treatment Plants through latest technology.

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Team workers

Our Services

Hydroflux Engineering Pvt Ltd is a New Delhi and Mumbai based Wastewater treatment company having more than ten years of experiance. We manufacture a wide range of Water and Wastewater treatment systems like ETP, STP, DM, RO, and Water Softener Plants.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)

Hydroflux Engineering Pvt Ltd is the best STP plant manufacturer in Delhi NCR and Mumbai. To know frequently asked questions (FAQ) related STP plant and its activity, please read this section or contact us on the given number or email.

Wastewater is the water that is generated from normal living processes. There are two kinds of wastewater: residential and industrial. The former is produced by households and is usually regulated, while industries and businesses generate the latter. Both types of wastewater are treated before they are released back into the environment. The difference between the two types is based on the source. Domestic wastewater comes from a domestic toilet, while industrial waste is derived from industrial processes. For example, the water from a manufacturing plant is considered gray water.

Municipal wastewater is comprised primarily of organic compounds, which are naturally occurring substances. Most of these are proteins, carbohydrates, and fats. Although most organics are biodegradable (meaning organisms can eat them), they are still harmful to the receiving waters. Too much of them can be hazardous to aquatic life, so it is important to manage wastewater properly. Fortunately, there are many ways to deal with the problem.

Organic waste decomposes in oxygen-free environments. Hence, it is dangerous to human health and the environment. When disposed of in a landfill, this organic waste can create methane gas, recovered and used to generate energy. Aside from causing pollution, wastewater can be a source of nutrient pollution.

Whether it is a large residential complex or a small apartment building, sewage treatment plants need to treat water generated by people and households. Generally, a residential complex generates between 4,000 and 6,000 gallons of wastewater per day, but it can also be higher. In order to meet the standards, the water use of a residential unit should not exceed 135 litres per person per day.

However, the waste generated by residential complexes often exceeds the suggested volume of 135 lpcd, which overloads the sewage treatment plant (STP). The recommended amount for residential use is double or even triple that amount, leading to the need for a more efficient STP.

The wastewater generation of residential units is even more extreme than commercial establishments. The human occupants of a residential building are only present during their duty hours, eight to ten hours a day. The resulting wastewater, also called gray water, is often two to five times higher than a commercial complex.

What are the constituents of wastewater sludge? The simplest way to answer this question is to consider all of the organics that are in wastewater. This includes human feces and fat, plant and sugar materials, and soaps. Some organics dissolve into the water, while some remain separate particles. These latter are known as suspended solids, and they are removed in the process of wastewater treatment.

Inorganic substances are common in wastewater. These substances come from different sources, including industrial processes, stormwater, and petroleum products. Most of these substances are stable and cannot be broken down by organisms in wastewater. Hence, they are commonly found in sewage.

The constituents of sewage are characterized as follows: The amount of bacteria in wastewater depends on the type of sludge. In municipal sludge, the concentration of organic matter is 99.9%. However, there are small dissolved solids, and some inorganic materials, such as oils and grease, are present. These come from commercial and industrial sources as well as stormwater and cracked pipes. Most inorganic substances are stable and cannot be broken down by the organisms present in the wastewater.

Water treatment is an excellent solution to the growing problem of water scarcity. During the process of wastewater treatment, pollutants are removed from the wastewater. These contaminants can then be recycled and used by industries. Here are several benefits of treating wastewater: (a) clean and reusable. b) It makes water cleaner. Operating a wastewater treatment facility will save the environment. If your community has a large amount of wastewater, it will be easier to manage.

Besides containing contaminants, wastewater contains dissolved minerals and nutrients. It also contains detergents' proteins, carbohydrates, fats, oils, and synthetic compounds. These compounds require oxygen to break down. Hence, the water is toxic to humans.

The wastewater is very dirty. It is full of dissolved minerals derived from fresh water and contains various contaminants. Some of these contaminants are biodegradable, while others are not. The toxins present in wastewater also need to be removed to prevent disease. The resulting wastewater is not safe for human consumption. However, wastewater treatment facilities can be used for drinking, cooking, and lawn-mowing purposes.

Wastewater is the wastewater from many of our uses. This includes washing our dishes, showering, and flushing the toilet. Commercial enterprises and industries also use water for many purposes. All of this water enters the wastewater stream and flows to a treatment plant. The treatment process aims to make it as clean as possible. In addition, wastewater is a major source of pollution.

Most wastewater is biologically treated, but it needs to undergo chemical treatment in some cases. Biological cleaning can be insufficient, and a combination of both methods is necessary. In such cases, chemical treatment is used. This process involves removing toxins and restoring the cycle of water. The wastewater is then returned to nature. After treatment, the waste is then disposed of in a landfill. In most cases, this means reusing the water, but this is not always an option.

There are several types of wastewater treatment. Biological cleaning is a great way to remove pollutants from water, but sometimes it is not enough. In these cases, chemical treatment is necessary. The chemical treatment process involves using chemicals to break down the contaminants in wastewater. The goal is to make the water suitable for reuse. Ultimately, this process improves the quality of water and prevents pollution. The best way to get your water to that point is to treat it properly.

There are many sewage treatment methods, but the most common is aeration. Primary aeration involves aerating raw sewage before it reaches the treatment facility. The screening and grit-removal processes separate solids from the water. The solids, about 35 percent, are disposed of in landfills. The grit and screenings are then composted and used as fertilizer.

In secondary sewage treatment, microorganisms remove dissolved and suspended biological matter from the wastewater. These microorganisms degrade the organic material in the wastewater, producing carbon dioxide and microbial cell mass that settles to the bottom of a secondary sedimentation basin. This product is called secondary sludge. Activated sludge is another sewage treatment method that utilizes bacteria directly in the sewage.

Combined sewer systems are another way of sewage treatment. These systems carry urban runoff to a sewage treatment facility. Most sewage treatment facilities involve two main stages: primary treatment and secondary treatment. Advanced sewage treatment may include tertiary processes that remove nutrients and polish the effluent. Both primary and secondary sludge processes reduce organic matter. The primary stage is the most basic type of sludge removal, and secondary sludge is the most effective type.

The most common method of sewage treatment is filtering. The purpose of a filter is to remove impurities in the wastewater. In this method, a special type of filtration is used. Chemical wastewater treatment uses various chemicals to remove harmful bacteria. The most popular is chlorine, which kills harmful bacteria and oxidizes ozone. The second method of wastewater treatment is neutralization. A base or acid is mixed with the wastewater until a specific pH level is reached. Lime is used to neutralize acidic water.

The process of treating sewage effluent can be separated into several phases. Pathogenic bacteria and parasite eggs are removed during the first phase, and then the sludge is treated. Next, it is subjected to different processes, including disinfection, secondary treatment, and biological treatment. The wastewater is reclaimed and distributed throughout the city through pump stations. It may also be used in golf courses, cooling towers, and landfills.

In 2010, Israel was recognized as a world leader in water recycling, treating 80% of its sewage. It was the only country to recycle 100% of the sludge in its metropolitan area, reducing its dependence on water supplies. The Dan Region Wastewater Treatment Plant in Israel was designated a world model in 2012 and used the natural filtration qualities of sand to treat wastewater. Currently, the region's wastewater treatment plant (known locally as Shafdan) provides 400 million cubic meters of recycled water a year - accounting for 40% of all the water used for agriculture.

Although STPs have a long life and are a cost-effective long-term solution, they are often not operated or maintained properly. Here are common problems associated with STPs and how to fix them.

In general, STPs are known to have high noise levels. The reason is due to the fact that the equipment is electric. Old designs are inefficient and noisy, which is why most of them are built without an alternate power supply. Also, STPs over ten years old have outdated clarifiers and balancing tanks, which causes the treated wastewater to have little difference in quality from untreated water.

One of the most common problems associated with an STP is a noxious odor. The smell is often unbearable and is one of the reasons for a complaint. There are several factors that contribute to this problem, including lack of aeration. The noise is also problematic, preventing residents from sleeping peacefully. It's easy to see why a sewage treatment plant needs to be regulated by the CPCB.

If you have extra space and are considering a home upgrade, why not consider greywater treatment? The benefits are many. First, the extra space can be used for ornamental plants, fruit trees, and vegetable gardens. If you don't want to risk contaminating the plants, you can use greywater to water them. Be sure to keep the greywater away from edible parts.

Second, a separate greywater treatment system will provide better water security for the resident. The builder's priorities are often different from the residents', so they incorporate greywater with sewage in the sewage treatment plant (STP). A separate greywater treatment system is easier to operate, and it gives you a backup facility in case STP fails. It's also more efficient for the builder and cheaper to operate.

Third, it will save money on your energy bill. Depending on the system you choose, it can save you hundreds or even thousands of pounds each year. You might be tempted to save a few hundred dollars, but the savings could quickly mount up. Unlike traditional systems, greywater treatment is also very inexpensive compared to installing a new system. And most systems only require a few square meters of extra space.

The main differences between aerobic and anaerobic wastewater treatment methods are the process of decomposing biomass and the lack of air. This process uses fewer chemicals and energy and produces biogas that can replace fossil fuels. It can also treat sewage in small-scale systems for a single household or a number of households in a shared facility. Small-scale systems can be used in municipalities, rural areas, and even developing countries. Depending on the size of the community, they may be on-site, off-site, or community-based.

Anaerobic treatment is a method that doesn't require oxygen to work. It uses microbial decomposition to break down organic waste and produce water and carbon dioxide. It also treats phosphorus, nitrogen, and nitrification. However, anaerobic systems can be more complex and expensive, and they typically require larger systems and higher initial costs. Nevertheless, they have distinct advantages.

Anaerobic treatment requires a continuous source of electricity and regular pumping of solids out of the system. While it's more expensive to maintain anaerobic systems, they are more efficient in the long run. Unlike aerobic processes, anaerobic treatments generate less sludge. The sludge produced by anaerobic processes can be reused for soil enrichment and are generally less expensive.

There are a variety of wastewater treatment technologies available. Most of them use biological processes. These methods are divided into two basic categories: high tech and low tech. However, some may fall into both categories. "Intensive" systems are compact and less expensive, while "extensive" systems are larger and more expensive. Some sewage treatment plants utilize a combination of technologies, including processes.

The first step in treating sewage is to remove organic pollutants. This involves a thorough three-stage process, and this process takes around 24 hours. The last step is to remove bacteria, pathogens, and other contaminants from the wastewater. Once the sewage has been thoroughly treated, it is discharged. Once the treatment is complete, it is disposed of properly.

Second, sewage treatment systems use a process known as oxidation-reduction. The oxidation-reduction step in the treatment process breaks down the organic matter, which is the source of the odor. Once this is complete, the wastewater enters a filtering stage to remove further pollutants. Third, the odour treatment step can remove up to 90% of the contaminants.

The working process of sewage treatment plants consists of removing pollutants and preparing the effluent for discharge. The wastewater treatment process begins with secondary sedimentation, which converts organic matter in the sewage into stable forms. There are two common approaches to this process: the trickling filter and the activated sludge method. The trickling filter consists of an enclosed tank with bricks or stone and a layer of microorganisms. The effluent is entered through an inlet and trickles over the bed layer by sprinklers. The microbial activity oxidizes the organic matter in the effluent, causing it to sink to the bottom of the filtration bed and form sludge.

The STP's secondary treatment process removes more suspended solids and soluble organic matter from the wastewater. The biological process removes these contaminants by utilizing microorganisms, which turn them into energy. The sewage treatment plant provides the environment for these processes. The plant helps maintain dissolved oxygen levels in the receiving waters by removing soluble organic matter. Some of the different biological processes used in a sewage treatment plant include the trickling filter, activated sludge process, and rotating biological treatment.

After a sludge treatment plant is installed, the process starts in a series of tanks that break down suspended solids. The primary clarifiers, also known as the sedimentation tank, provide two hours of detention time for gravity settling. The process allows the sewage to flow slowly, allowing the settled solids to settle to the bottom. This is called raw sludge, and the sludge is collected and moved using mechanical scrapers. There are mechanical surface skimming devices fitted on the first tank to remove materials that float.

The Union government has announced plans to build more than 100 sewage treatment plants (STPs) over the next six years. While these new plants are expected to use more efficient equipment and produce energy from methane and biogas, these facilities are not cheap. This financial burden is causing a backlog and reducing the treatment capacity. Building a city-wide system can cost anywhere between Rs 3000 and 4000 per capita.

According to the latest estimates, 80% of India's water supplies flow back into the ecosystem in wastewater. This waste is not only a public health hazard and is also a significant environmental hazard. Nevertheless, wastewater management is essential for meeting the country's water supply demands. The country currently has the capacity to treat 37% of its sewage, but most of these facilities don't function at their maximum capacity or comply with standards.

In 1992, a World Health Organization study revealed only eight full STPs in India. In that year, 114 cities dumped untreated sewage into the Ganges River. In 2014, the CPCB reported a total of 816 plants, with a combined capacity of 23,277 mld. In November 2016, the CPCB announced new figures, revealing the country has 193 common effluent treatment plants in operation.

The cost-to-capacity method is a standard cost estimating tool that can evaluate the economics of building a particular type of facility. This method is fairly straightforward, although there are some considerations to take into account. For example, the cost of lease agreements for larger facilities or new equipment is typically included in this cost estimate. Additionally, the scale factor must be representative of the technology in question. Using the cost-to-capacity methodology to develop capacity estimates requires a high degree of accuracy.

The cost-to-capacity method is useful because it allows a simple cost estimate based on historical costs. The main drawback is that this method is not as accurate as if it were based on actual data. To get an accurate cost estimate, you should make use of multiple sources.

Most of these sources do not provide industry-specific data. This means that you need to make sure that your cost-to-capacity cost estimate is based on multiple sources. Once you estimate how much STPs of different capacities would cost, you can then start the actual construction process.

The operating costs of a sewage treatment plant are considerable, but the benefits far outweigh the costs. A fully automated STP can eliminate three operators. In this system, the bugs digest and clean the effluent for you. With appropriate instrumentation and control systems, this method requires almost no maintenance, and it is easy to run. In addition, the operating costs are almost zero.

The main operating costs for an STP are in construction and maintenance, and they are often high. Regular cleaning of an STP can cost tens of thousands of dollars.

In India, a regular STP will cost lacs of rupees a year to operate.

When using cleaning products, there are some things you should not flush down your drain. Avoid flushing paint thinners and brush cleaners down the toilet because they are acidic and kill bacteria. You should also avoid flushing sanitary items such as cotton wool and disposable nappies down the drain, and they can coat the bacteria in the unit and cause blockages. You should also avoid washing your hands with milk because it can strip the biozone. Moreover, never use the sewage treatment plant for bathing. Spa water contains chemicals and should not be put down the drain.

Septic tanks are the most common sewage treatment plant and are often located in rural areas. Residential septic lagoons are smaller ponds or underground holding tanks that process waste. These sewage treatment plants separate waste into three main compounds: sludge, solids, and liquids. The liquids settle to the bottom of the septic tank while the solids stay on top. Regular pump outs and dredging are required to remove the solids.

There are some important DOs & DONTs for wastewater treatment plants. For instance, septic tanks must not be pumped with chemicals or air. If there is any sludge, it may not be biodegradable, and it will kill the microbes in the sludge, which is an important part of the waste.


We Implemented ETP, STP, DM, RO, and Water Softener Plants to serve Various Industrial requirements.

ETP, STP, DM, RO, and Water Softener Plants

Hydroflux Engineering Pvt Ltd is a reputed organisation and associated with many other reputable organisations to maintain and deliver quality Wastewater treatment products and services like ETP, STP, DM Plant, Industrial RO Plant and Water Softener to our clients in India and Abroad.


For more than 10+ years, we have been serving ETP, STP, DM Plant, Industrial RO and Water Softener Plant projects for our happy clients' acrosses 17+ countries.